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15,710
Do investmentcash flow sensitivities provide useful measures of financing constraints?
 QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS
, 1997
"... No. This paper investigates the relationship between financing constraints and investmentcash flow sensitivities by analyzing the firms identified by Fazzari, Hubbard, and Petersen as having unusually high investmentcash flow sensitivities. We Quarterlynd that firms that appear less Quarterlynanci ..."
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Cited by 656 (8 self)
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No. This paper investigates the relationship between financing constraints and investmentcash flow sensitivities by analyzing the firms identified by Fazzari, Hubbard, and Petersen as having unusually high investmentcash flow sensitivities. We Quarterlynd that firms that appear less Quarterlynancially constrained exhibit significantly greater sensitivities than firms that appear more financially constrained. We find this pattern for the entire sample period, subperiods, and individual years. These results (and simple theoretical arguments) suggest that higher sensitivities cannot be interpreted as evidence that firms are more financially constrained. These findings call into question the interpretation of most previous research that uses this methodology. “Our financial position is sound... Most of the company’s funds are generated by operations and these funds grew at an average annual rate of 29 % [over the past 3 years]. Throughout the company’s history this selffinancing concept has not been a constraint on the company’s growth. With recent growth restrained by depressed economic
A New Method for Solving Hard Satisfiability Problems
 AAAI
, 1992
"... We introduce a greedy local search procedure called GSAT for solving propositional satisfiability problems. Our experiments show that this procedure can be used to solve hard, randomly generated problems that are an order of magnitude larger than those that can be handled by more traditional approac ..."
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Cited by 734 (21 self)
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We introduce a greedy local search procedure called GSAT for solving propositional satisfiability problems. Our experiments show that this procedure can be used to solve hard, randomly generated problems that are an order of magnitude larger than those that can be handled by more traditional approaches such as the DavisPutnam procedure or resolution. We also show that GSAT can solve structured satisfiability problems quickly. In particular, we solve encodings of graph coloring problems, Nqueens, and Boolean induction. General application strategies and limitations of the approach are also discussed. GSAT is best viewed as a modelfinding procedure. Its good performance suggests that it may be advantageous to reformulate reasoning tasks that have traditionally been viewed as theoremproving problems as modelfinding tasks.
A Sense of Self for Unix Processes
 In Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy
, 1996
"... A method for anomaly detection is introduced in which "normal" is defined by shortrange correlations in a process ' system calls. Initial experiments suggest that the definition is stable during normal behavior for standard UNIX programs. Further, it is able to detect several common ..."
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Cited by 684 (29 self)
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A method for anomaly detection is introduced in which "normal" is defined by shortrange correlations in a process ' system calls. Initial experiments suggest that the definition is stable during normal behavior for standard UNIX programs. Further, it is able to detect several common intrusions involving sendmail and lpr. This work is part of a research program aimed at building computer security systems that incorporate the mechanisms and algorithms used by natural immune systems. 1 Introduction We are interested in developing computer security methods that are based on the way natural immune systems distinguish self from other. Such "artificial immune systems" would have richer notions of identity and protection than those afforded by current operating systems, and they could provide a layer of generalpurpose protection to augment current computer security systems. An important prerequisite of such a system is an appropriate definition of self, which is the subject of this paper. W...
Accurate whole human genome sequencing using reversible terminator chemistry. Nature 456: 53–59
, 2008
"... ..."
What Do We Know about Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data
 Journal of Finance
, 1995
"... We investigate the determinants of capital structure choice by analyzing the financing decisions of public firms in the major industrialized countries. At an aggregate level, firm leverage is fairly similar across the G7 countries. We find that factors identified by previous studies as correlated i ..."
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Cited by 954 (14 self)
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We investigate the determinants of capital structure choice by analyzing the financing decisions of public firms in the major industrialized countries. At an aggregate level, firm leverage is fairly similar across the G7 countries. We find that factors identified by previous studies as correlated in the crosssection with firm leverage in the U.S., are similarly correlated in other countries as well. However, a deeper examination of the U.S. and foreign evidence suggests that the theoretical underpinnings of the observed correlations are still largely unresolved.
Algorithms for Scalable Synchronization on SharedMemory Multiprocessors
 ACM Transactions on Computer Systems
, 1991
"... Busywait techniques are heavily used for mutual exclusion and barrier synchronization in sharedmemory parallel programs. Unfortunately, typical implementations of busywaiting tend to produce large amounts of memory and interconnect contention, introducing performance bottlenecks that become marke ..."
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Cited by 567 (32 self)
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Busywait techniques are heavily used for mutual exclusion and barrier synchronization in sharedmemory parallel programs. Unfortunately, typical implementations of busywaiting tend to produce large amounts of memory and interconnect contention, introducing performance bottlenecks that become markedly more pronounced as applications scale. We argue that this problem is not fundamental, and that one can in fact construct busywait synchronization algorithms that induce no memory or interconnect contention. The key to these algorithms is for every processor to spin on separate locallyaccessible ag variables, and for some other processor to terminate the spin with a single remote write operation at an appropriate time. Flag variables may be locallyaccessible as a result of coherent caching, or by virtue of allocation in the local portion of physically distributed shared memory. We present a new scalable algorithm for spin locks that generates O(1) remote references per lock acquisition, independent of the number of processors attempting to acquire the lock. Our algorithm provides reasonable latency in the absence of contention, requires only a constant amount of space per lock, and requires no hardware support other than
Investor Protection and Corporate Governance
, 1999
"... Recent research on corporate governance has documented large differences between countries in ownership concentration in publicly traded firms, in the breadth and depth of financial markets, and in the access of firms to external finance. We suggest that there is a common element to the explanations ..."
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Cited by 559 (11 self)
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Recent research on corporate governance has documented large differences between countries in ownership concentration in publicly traded firms, in the breadth and depth of financial markets, and in the access of firms to external finance. We suggest that there is a common element to the explanations of these differences, namely how well investors, both shareholders and creditors, are protected by law from expropriation by the managers and controlling shareholders of firms. We describe the differences in laws and the effectiveness of their enforcement across countries, summarize the consequences of these differences, and suggest potential strategies of reform of corporate governance. We argue that the legal approach is a more fruitful way to understand corporate governance and its reform than the conventional distinction between bankcentered and marketcentered financial systems.
Primitives for the manipulation of general subdivisions and the computations of Voronoi diagrams
 ACM Tmns. Graph
, 1985
"... The following problem is discussed: Given n points in the plane (the sites) and an arbitrary query point 4, find the site that is closest to q. This problem can be solved by constructing the Voronoi diagram of the given sites and then locating the query point in one of its regions. Two algorithms ar ..."
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Cited by 543 (11 self)
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The following problem is discussed: Given n points in the plane (the sites) and an arbitrary query point 4, find the site that is closest to q. This problem can be solved by constructing the Voronoi diagram of the given sites and then locating the query point in one of its regions. Two algorithms are given, one that constructs the Voronoi diagram in O(n log n) time, and another that inserts a new site in O(n) time. Both are based on the use of the Voronoi dual, or Delaunay triangulation, and are simple enough to be of practical value. The simplicity of both algorithms can be attributed to the separation of the geometrical and topological aspects of the problem and to the use of two simple but powerful primitives, a geometric predicate and an operator for manipulating the topology of the diagram. The topology is represented by a new data structure for generalized diagrams, that is, embeddings of graphs in twodimensional manifolds. This structure represents simultaneously an embedding, its dual, and its mirror image. Furthermore, just two operators are sufficient for building and modifying arbitrary diagrams.
MONALISA SENa) – ANIL K. BERAb) The Improbable Nature of the Implied Correlation Matrix from Spatial Regression Models*1
"... Spatial lag dependence in a regression model is similar to the inclusion of a serially autoregressive term for the dependent variable in a timeseries context. However, unlike in the timeseries model, the implied covariance structure matrix from the spatial autoregressive model can have a very coun ..."
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Spatial lag dependence in a regression model is similar to the inclusion of a serially autoregressive term for the dependent variable in a timeseries context. However, unlike in the timeseries model, the implied covariance structure matrix from the spatial autoregressive model can have a very counterintuitive and improbable structure. A single value of spatial autocorrelation parameter can imply a large band of values of pairwise correlations among different observations of the dependent variable, when the weight matrix for the spatial model is specified exogenously. This is illustrated using cigarette sales data (1963–1992) of 46 US states. It can be seen that that two "close " neighbours can have very low implied correlations compared to distant neighbours when the weighting scheme is the firstorder contiguity matrix. However, if the weight matrix can capture the underlying dependence structure of the observations, then this unintuitive behaviour of implied correlation is corrected to a large extent. From this, the possibility of constructing the weight matrix (or the overall spatial dependence in the data) that is consistent with the underlying correlation structure of the dependent variable is explored. The suggested procedures produced very positive results indicating further research.
Detecting intrusion using system calls: alternative data models
 In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy
, 1999
"... Intrusion detection systems rely on a wide variety of observable data to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate activities. In this paper we study one such observable— sequences of system calls into the kernel of an operating system. Using systemcall data sets generated by several differen ..."
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Cited by 433 (3 self)
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Intrusion detection systems rely on a wide variety of observable data to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate activities. In this paper we study one such observable— sequences of system calls into the kernel of an operating system. Using systemcall data sets generated by several different programs, we compare the ability of different data modeling methods to represent normal behavior accurately and to recognize intrusions. We compare the following methods: Simple enumeration of observed sequences, comparison of relative frequencies of different sequences, a rule induction technique, and Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). We discuss the factors affecting the performance of each method, and conclude that for this particular problem, weaker methods than HMMs are likely sufficient. 1.
Results 1  10
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15,710